Methods for Evaluating Early Prototypes


Object based techniques help to understand how people come to think, feel, and know about their lives. Object-based technique categories in three main parts:

Photo Elicitation

Participants respond to a set of images, discuss images and on those responses we try to understand what they are thinking, feeling and see in them, after analysis we apply those interpretations & knowledge in our own project.

Collage and Mapping

Provide platform to participants to externalize emotions, expressing attitudes and desires. And mapping provide relationship between people and these objects.

Card Sorting

Participants sort cards with words or phrases in them into groups and uncover how people organize information, relate and categorize concepts. We can perform open and closed sorting based on the desire needs.

Multiple Sorting

This technique is used to evaluate and understand the user experience and explore people’s conceptualization. People ask for classification and then interviewed with them to know the reason of these categorisations.

Contextual laddering

One-to-one interviewing, qualitative data gathering and quantitative data analysis technique. Helps researchers and designers to understand how concrete product attributes benefit personal values for end users and decision making.

UX laddering is under development but have several advantages for this technique:

  • Greater emphasis on concrete attributes,
  • Suitable within a user-centered design approach
  • Answering why – questions


Kuniavsky, M. (2003). Observing the User Experience. Observing the User Experience. (chapter#8)

World, D., Frohlich, D., & Wilson, M. (2008). User Experience : A Multiple Sorting Method based on Personal Construct Theory. Chi, 1–5.

Vanden Abeele, V., & Zaman, B. (2009). Laddering the User Experience! User Experience Methods, Interact 2009, (July). Retrieved from the User Experience.pdf



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