Sorting techniques for eliciting people’s experiences

Repertory Grid Technique

To get useful feedback and diverse opinions on different stages of the design from different users before doing final product UX evaluation. This process do by building early prototypes and creating all possible scenarios. It benefits to fulfill the actual user needs and desires.

In this study, structured interview was built by using repertory grid technique and divided into two main phases. In first phase, researcher created three different bipolar elements and presented to participants and in second phase asked for rate those elements on own opinions.

The same approach was considered in this journal as well “Capturing The Design Repertory Space From Grid Technique a User Perspective” for finding, exploring, understanding design space in early prototypes, generate different views on the artifacts, embodying various individual needs and concerns in relation to the artifact.

Below are findings and suggested steps of this research after applying this approach by using 11 group of people.

  • Charting the design space
  • Exploring and understanding design space
  • Abstraction: Underlying topics made visible

At final, the best design alternative is generally the one the most people agree on. This view rooted in the quantitative research tradition.

A comparison of five elicitation techniques for elicitation of attribute of low involvement products

Compared five elicitation techniques on eight criteria derived from the theories of consumer buying behavior.

  • First triadic sorting for mapping cognitive structure.
  • Second is free sorting, form groups based on important aspects as compare to other products.
  • Third is not a sorting method, but use to find respondent relevant attributes products, called direct elicitation.
  • Another one is ranking for prioritizing products according to preference.
  • Last one, is picking from an attribute list.

The purpose of these approaches to find the theoretical conceptualisations of relationship between product attributes and consumer choice and motivation.

What aspects are you interested in improving (e.g. usability, beauty, satisfaction, …)

In our project I am interested to improve ease of use because it is related to blind people and trying to make this app as easy as we can do.

What design details you are unsure about (e.g. menu items, visual appearance, functions…)

I am not sure about the voice messages/commands like we need to evaluate our messages based on voice quality, rhythm, speed, pitch etc

Who would you like to evaluate the prototype: expert or users

In our study we are only considering users, first we have planned to do evaluation with actual user (to make them blind temporarily) by using paper prototype along scripted voice messages (scripted audio).

After that we will do our final evaluation with actual blind user and it could be available and participate before our final evaluation but it depends on his availability.

Do you need qualitative or quantitative data, or perhaps both? Later in class we’ll collect some data and do the analysis.

We required both qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate our first prototype.

Selection of suitable color scheme, menu items etc

About color scheme and design we are not putting much effort on these, we are focusing on audio interfaces and how can we provide ease of use to blind people. We have documented all the possible functionality and scenarios (in our previous group post) those will be addressed in this application.


Karapanos, Evangelos, and Jean-Bernard Martens. 2008. “The Quantitative Side of the Repertory Grid Technique: Some Concerns.” UXEM Workshop in CHI’08, April 6th, 2008.

Hassenzahl, Marc, and Rainer Wessler. 2000. “Capturing Design Space From a User Perspective: The Repertory Grid Technique Revisited.” International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 12 (3): 441–59. doi:10.1207/S15327590IJHC1203&4_13.

Bech-Larsen, Tino, and Niels Asger Nielsen. 1999. “A Comparison of Five Elicitation Techniques for Elicitation of Attributes of Low Involvement Products.” Journal of Economic Psychology 20 (3): 315–41. doi:10.1016/S0167-4870(99)00011-2.



Methods for Evaluating Early Prototypes


Object based techniques help to understand how people come to think, feel, and know about their lives. Object-based technique categories in three main parts:

Photo Elicitation

Participants respond to a set of images, discuss images and on those responses we try to understand what they are thinking, feeling and see in them, after analysis we apply those interpretations & knowledge in our own project.

Collage and Mapping

Provide platform to participants to externalize emotions, expressing attitudes and desires. And mapping provide relationship between people and these objects.

Card Sorting

Participants sort cards with words or phrases in them into groups and uncover how people organize information, relate and categorize concepts. We can perform open and closed sorting based on the desire needs.

Multiple Sorting

This technique is used to evaluate and understand the user experience and explore people’s conceptualization. People ask for classification and then interviewed with them to know the reason of these categorisations.

Contextual laddering

One-to-one interviewing, qualitative data gathering and quantitative data analysis technique. Helps researchers and designers to understand how concrete product attributes benefit personal values for end users and decision making.

UX laddering is under development but have several advantages for this technique:

  • Greater emphasis on concrete attributes,
  • Suitable within a user-centered design approach
  • Answering why – questions


Kuniavsky, M. (2003). Observing the User Experience. Observing the User Experience. (chapter#8)

World, D., Frohlich, D., & Wilson, M. (2008). User Experience : A Multiple Sorting Method based on Personal Construct Theory. Chi, 1–5.

Vanden Abeele, V., & Zaman, B. (2009). Laddering the User Experience! User Experience Methods, Interact 2009, (July). Retrieved from the User Experience.pdf


iBeacon – Scenario based design session

Design Session Summary

Designer — Godfrey Kingsley.

Date: 28/02/2016


The session was carried out at Focus building,Telliskivi 57, with students from different academic backgrounds, countries and age. We had a session of approximately 1 hour 15 mins, with 3 participants, student and professional categories.

Participant 1: Our first participant was a female from Korea, studying at Tallinn university and a taekwondo teacher.

Participant 2: A female from Nigeria, a fashion designer and student at Tallinn University of Technology

Participant 3: A Ghanaian PHD student at Tallinn University.

For ensuring the privacy of participants and participants data, consent forms were given to each participant to read and sign which they all did gladly.

Here the link of consent form we compiled for them:

Furthermore, permission was taken from participants to have an audio recording of the session, which they all gladly complied with. Our project objective was explained briefly and each scenario was handed over to participants one by one.

I handed the scenario copy without questions one by one to each participant and have one with questions, I have explained the idea of ibeacon navigation app and were given enough time to read and understand the idea, concept. (I repeated this process for each scenario)

After thorough reading and understanding I engaged them with my study, questions and discussion. Below I have noted the overall impressions and concerns raised during design session.

James: Shortest route scenario

Topics discussed: Likely changes to be implemented, Suggestions on scenario, interest in future design session

concerns raised and Impressions

  • How would iBeacons trigger messages to the app? Would it be a beep or some notification that would entail the user to press some buttons to hear the message entered or would voice messages just keep coming in
  • Confusion as to how app would actually work to find the shortest route and explain the different routes but suggest the fastest path
  • Participants indicated willingness to be involved in future design sessions and to give suggestions with the prototype
  • Scenario is realistic as agreed by all

Gabriel: Navigation Scenario

Topics discussed: Likely changes to be implemented, Suggestions on scenario, what interests you about this application

concerns raised and Impressions

  • Participants were generally impressed with the concept
  • What do small issues refer to in the scenario?
  • Generally agreed that the app will be useful for blind users

Alex: Wrong direction scenario

Topics discussed: Additional type of controls, added features, recommend the app to blind users, interest in assisting with future design sessions, interests you about this scenario

concerns raised and Impressions

  • Would blind people have to type when using the app or speak to it in someway
  • If user is somehow turned in the wrong direction and app says turn left when user for instance is backing the direction of iBeacon, wouldn’t that be somewhat confusing
  • They agreed to have this app recommended to all blind people
  • Voice alert is a very good feature

Ashley: Navigation Scenario

Topics discussed: Places to have this navigation system implemented. What can be changed/modified?

concerns raised and Impressions

  • Implementation of the app was suggested mainly for university and malls and any building with likely confusions for blind people
  • Participants all agreed that the scenarios were realistic and addresses a real problem

Comments on Giraffe Experience Scenarios


The problem is very genuine and almost everyone facing the same problem especially people from outside and came here for study or visit.

Who could know better than me, this was the same condition as I had faced 6 months ago, when I did plan to rent a private apartment. I contacted with broker/owner by using but not all of them was replied.

I will visit before final decision and check surroundings of apartment like nearest market, bus station, neighbor, heating, elevator etc and also will look equipment in working condition with closer look because most of the time floor is damaged and you cannot see & feel in images after these I will make my final decision.

In this scenario, mostly focused on apartment condition, the problem in apartment finding might be possible due to other reasons like I mentioned above mostly people focuses on those apartments whose near to bus station, market and good neighbor, heating system and facilities in building, these can be highlight in this scenario.

I liked the 360 virtual reality view idea and it will be great, helpful and unique in current market. And definitely idea looking realistic especially due to the example addressed in this scenario.


It is the same filtering process as other applications are doing, you can add advance search feature to make more feasible and helpful to user like by adding filters for number of rooms, size range, number of bathrooms, particular area selection etc. So, keep these filters in mind when you plan to design filtering mechanism.

I was using the same type of search on and it was really handy.  A question that came to my mind is that, Is all of the apartments and rooms at this website will upload 360/VR compatible images?


In this scenario, the usage of VR feature described perfectly. The scenario seems interesting and as an exploring the apartment or renting place in more detail is a great thing to help user to make decision easier.

But the problem is, people also want to know about surroundings and want to check in working condition with own eyes like fridge, heating system, washing machine etc.

I think people can reserve those places by using this online system and help to make decision easier but they would visit before final decision as I explained “why people will visit before final decision?” in problem scenario.


My first impression and thinking after reading this scenario is that, it is not possible to contract online, because you need to sign contract by yourself on hard copy documents, one for yourself and one for owner(as I experienced before) and nobody will give keys without knowing others and doing conversation.

It is not looking very realistic but I think it can be possible to sign contract digitally and do conversation on skype or by something else.

This type of booking scenario/feature play an important role on both sides by saving lot of valuable time.

James: Interaction Scenario

Shortest route scenario

James goes to bank for collecting his pension and mostly use elevator near to entrance gate stairs those go to 4th floor but far away from pension collection office(extreme right corner) and they don’t know about the shortest route to get office at 4th floor of the bank and he is using the same route from last 6 months.

The society where grandchildren lives is a iBeacon covered area and James son installed an app for him to navigate himself by using voice commands. One day James goes to bank for collecting his pension after a moment Voice-iLocater starts triggering voice messages because bank office is also an iBeacon covered area.

He listened that application commanding him to take left and after 10 steps there is an elevator, he follows the instructions and reached at 4th floor in front of office without any assistance. First time James get knowledge about this elevator, he is feeling comfortable and happy by knowing that bank is an iBeacon covered area.


  1. Do you like this application and how much will helpful for blind people?
  2. Do you have any blind friend or person around you which you recommend this application?
  3. Any special thing you want to share with us?